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Dancing Senegal Parrot


Type: Senegal Parrot
Genus: Poicephalus
Species: Senegalus
Subspecies: Mesotypus
Sex: Female
Weight: 120 grams
Height: 9 inches
Age: 15 years, 5 months
Caped Cape Parrot


Type: Cape Parrot
Genus: Poicephalus
Subspecies: Fuscicollis
Sex: Male
Weight: 330 grams
Height: 13 inches
Age: 13 years, 8 months
Blue and Gold Macaw


Type: Blue & Gold Macaw
Genus: Ara
Sex: Female
Weight: 850 grams
Height: 26 inches
Age: 11 years, 5 months
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List of Common Parrots:

Budgerigar (Budgie)
Alexandrine Parakeet
African Ringneck
Indian Ringneck
Monk Parakeet (Quaker Parrot)

Mexican Parrotlet
Green Rumped Parrotlet
Blue Winged Parrotlet
Spectacled Parrotlet
Dusky Billed Parrotlet
Pacific Parrotlet
Yellow Faced Parrotlet

Peach Faced Lovebird
Masked Lovebird
Fischer's Lovebird
Lilian's (Nyasa) Lovebird
Black Cheeked Lovebird
Madagascar Lovebird
Abyssinian Lovebird
Red Faced Lovebird
Swindern's Lovebird

Lories and Lorikeets:
Rainbow Lorikeet

Sun Conure
Jenday Conure
Cherry Headed Conure
Blue Crowned Conure
Mitred Conure
Patagonian Conure
Green Cheeked Conure
Nanday Conure

Black Headed Caique
White Bellied Caique

Poicephalus Parrots:
Senegal Parrot
Meyer's Parrot
Red Bellied Parrot
Brown Headed Parrot
Jardine's Parrot
Cape Parrot
Ruppell's Parrot

Eclectus Parrot

African Greys:
Congo African Grey (CAG)
Timneh African Grey (TAG)

Blue Fronted Amazon
Yellow Naped Amazon
Yellow Headed Amazon
Orange Winged Amazon
Yellow Crowned Amazon

Galah (Rose Breasted) Cockatoo
Sulphur Crested Cockatoo
Umbrella Cockatoo
Moluccan Cockatoo
Bare Eyed Cockatoo
Goffin's Cockatoo

Red Shouldered (Hahn's) Macaw
Severe Macaw
Blue And Gold Macaw
Blue Throated Macaw
Military Macaw
Red Fronted Macaw
Scarlet Macaw
Green Winged Macaw
Hyacinth Macaw

Glossary of Common Parrot Terms

How Much Out of Cage Time

Comments (16)

By Michael Sazhin

Wednesday January 8th, 2014

A very common question parrot owners ask is how much time should my parrot spend out of the cage? Or they ask what are the minimum number of hours my ________ (fill in the species) needs to spend outside of the cage every day? The problem with this question is that it asks for a quantitative answer to a qualitative question. Here's my answer. It doesn't matter how long your parrot spends outside of the cage every day! What matters is how it spends its time out of the cage!

Too many parrots get their wings clipped and placed on a tree for hours at a time. The tree thus serves as nothing more than another cage! The bird cannot leave the tree and do what it truly wants (at least within the confines of the house). I'm not saying it's bad to put your bird into different “cages” throughout the day for variety but if the bird isn't free, this isn't “out of cage” time.

In the case of social companion parrots, the parrot wants to spend time with you do and do what you do. Putting the parrot down on a stand while you check email is no less boring to the bird than sitting in the cage. Out of cage time needs to serve as interactive time between you and your parrot for it to really count. The parrot needs to be part of what you are doing and you must be part of what your parrot is doing. No quantity of hours sitting out can replace this.

Parrots want to be in the middle of everything, the center of attention, and do what you do. They cannot be content being a passive part of your life.

Cage and tree
Cage vs tree

Cape Parrot on Tree
Is the tree not just another cage if the parrot isn't free to go elsewhere by flight? You wouldn't realize how much your parrot likes or doesn't like its tree unless you can observe it choosing to go there or choosing to leave. Despite how awesome I thought this tree is, it took Truman less time to get bored of it than it took me to build it!

The other issue is that some parrots don't really want to be out. In that case, forcing out of cage time only harms your relationship. Grabbing a parrot out of the cage with a towel to make it serve it's mandated “out of cage time” only makes the relationship even worse. It will only cause stress and distrust. The parrot will not enjoy that time and even though it received out of cage time, it entirely missed the purpose of that time. To achieve a great relationship, the parrot should want to come out and to spend time with you. When you use some of the out of cage time to serve positive interactive purposes such as trick training, it sets real goals for your parrot and reasons to want to be out.

If the parrot isn't enjoying being out, out of cage time is actually doing more harm than good!

Target Parrot from Cage
Use target training to teach parrots to enjoy coming out of the cage

Parrots out of cageParrots enjoying meaningful out of cage time (playing with toys) while exhibiting acceptable behavior. I want to encourage as much out of cage time like this as possible but put them away before they can get bored of toys and engage in nuisance behavior

Actually, I don't think there is a minimum amount of out of cage time. Rather there is a minimum amount of daily interaction, minimum amount of positive reinforcement, minimum amount of flying exercise, and minimum amount of a love that a parrot must have. These minimums aren't known so it is best to give as much as possible that your parrot wants to ensure you are not below minimum (as we all know parrots that don't get enough of these may resort to behavioral problems such as plucking).

In terms of good behavior, less is more. It is actually easier to set a maximum value for out of cage time for parrots than minimums. Although the parrot may wish to be out to interact and play as much as possible, if we let the parrot stay out too long, inevitably undesirable behavior will ensue. Almost no companion parrot can spend all day out of the cage without resorting to doing things that annoy us. Whether it's chewing up furniture, screaming, flying to us endlessly, nipping/biting people, or getting in fights with the rest of the flock, these are all the results of boredom from being out too long. To make the most of your parrot's out of cage time, perform parrot training and keep interactions direct and focused. However, put the parrot back in the cage before it has the opportunity to turn to nuisance behavior. If the parrot becomes accustomed to spending too much time out of the cage, it will be less inclined to be well-behaved and more likely turn to nuisance behavior to seek attention or entertain itself. You must use preemptive measures to keep the parrot trained or occupied. However, eventually these run out. The parrot is no longer hungry for training rewards, the parrot has had its fill of attention, etc. This is when the parrot turns to nipping the owner for fun or attention, chewing the curtains, attacking others, etc. Worse yet, whatever you end up doing in response to such undesired behavior (hurt parrot, put parrot away, yell at parrot, say 'no', etc), will only make things worse. The bad behavior is already learned and the parrot becomes reinforced to seek your attention with it.

putting parrot into cage
Put the parrot back into its cage before the onset of bad behavior. Work on increasing duration with time

Thus the parrot must be put away into the cage while things are still good. Leave some desire for next time to enjoy being out. Keeping out of cage time short but well-behaved is far better than long and chaotic (the parrot will hurt itself or the owner will burn out before you know it). As the parrot develops good habits during short but guided out of cage sessions, it will become more accustomed to behave that way whenever out. You can progressively have the parrot out for longer durations but the habitual good behavior will persist for longer spans of out of cage time!

For new parrot owners or owners with problematic parrots, doing short target training sessions for spans of 5-10 minutes and then putting the parrot away for a meal in the cage is a great way to start building up good behavior. You can progressively expand durations of time and introduce more play/interaction with time. Before you know it the parrot can be spending hours out where the parrot behaves in an acceptable manner to people and the parrot gets to enjoy the things it wants while out.

Parrot flying at home
Out of cage time provides room for flying

One of the top benefits of out of cage time to a bird is the space to fly. The cage almost never provides room to fly and even most outdoor aviaries are inadequate. However, in the space of your living room, the parrot has the space to stretch its wings and exercise. The parrot does not need to be flying all day long to get exercise but to make up for all the time on its legs in the cage, getting to fly while out is essential.

The other type of out of cage time we must seek to offer is out of [house] cage time. Taking your parrot outdoors is very enriching. The sights, sounds, smells, etc are all something different for the parrot to take in. Also the bird requires outdoor time for its health (vitamin D and calcium production). Use a harness to take your parrot outdoors as much as possible. Inevitably this turns into focused together time and is a top way to provide valuable out of cage time.

Parrots outside
Outdoor time provides some of the best benefits of out of cage time: fresh air, exercise, sunshine, enrichment

It is good to have a fair amount of predictable routine for your parrot when it comes to the out of cage time schedule. Give your parrot something to look forward to every day. But once in a while, break it up. Some days take your parrot out for longer, take your parrot some place outdoors, or leave it in its cage entirely. This helps the parrot adjust to a more varied lifestyle and prepare it for any changes. The parrot should enjoy out of cage time but it shouldn't be helpless without it.

So rather than imposing silly minimums like "A budgie should get at least 30 minutes a day of out of cage time, a conure should spend an hour outside of the cage, an African grey should get at least 3 hours of out of cage time, and a cockatoo needs to spend all day with you," you should put far more focus on the quality of time the parrot spends outside the cage instead. This is the out of cage time that truly matters. That said, try to provide as much out of cage time as you are able but instead of stressing about the exact amount, focus on making it more interactive, exercising, and stimulating for your parrot.

The out of cage time should be both enjoyable to the parrot but also to the owner. There must be balance such that both owner and parrot are happy for this long term arrangement to last. Keep early out of cage times short and sweet but stretch your parrot's endurance. Practice having the parrot out longer and longer but be sure to put the bird away before things can get bad. Having a well-behaved parrot that enjoys its out of cage time is a win/win for everybody.

Part of: Taming & Basic Training, Housing, General Parrot Care, Indoor Freeflight, Outdoor Harness Flight
Parrot Cage Out of Cage Time Time Tree Play Fly Flying Outdoor Harness
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Posted on January 9, 2014 07:18AM

Well our Sun Conure, Bailey, is out of his cage most of the day. He is flighted and enjoys our company. He either hangs out on me or he likes to play on his play gym. When he has had enough and wants some alone time, he will fly to his perch in the games room where it is quiet and just chill out for awhile. He does get some "time out" sessions though in his cage through out the day. All in all I would say h is a very contented bird.


Posted on January 9, 2014 05:35PM

Great topic! I agree that we need to work on that out of cage time should be quality time. But how do you define quality time? Is it only when you are 100% committed to interacting with your parrot or does this vary with situations? I think so! Take our example, we have two birds who are the best of friends (most of the time anyway ;)). They absolutely LOVE spending time together, regardless of where that is. If they are out of the cage at the same time (and they always are unless we are training or showering them), they will seek out each others company as much (or more) as ours. They goof about, play with toys, fly around the appartment and explore together. Its a joy to watch and they have a lot of fun and are always eager for it. Would you not consider that quality time? Of course, when we have the parrots out, we also interact with them and dedicate our attention to them. Some of the time 100% (recalls, interaction, play etc), others maybe as low as 30% (?), meaning I know they're there, talk to them and do a recall now and then, but I can also go about my own stuff. This type of mixed out of cage time they get for at least a few hours everyday. We also have truly dedicated out time everyday with training, weighing, showering etc which accounts for perhaps 1hr. I consider all of the time they are out to be quality time. Whats your take on it?


Posted on January 9, 2014 06:38PM

The bird will let you know what it[/b:hvi539wv][/i:hvi539wv] considers quality out of cage time (if it's wings aren't clipped!!!). This is why I say that quality out of cage time has a lot to do with freedom, not just interaction. However, from our[/b:hvi539wv][/i:hvi539wv] perspective, if we are not part of that bird's out of cage time, why do we have a social pet? So for our sake, we must ensure that out of cage time for the bird is quality time for us (and I mean not just now but also in the future depending on the behaviors we encourage now). But if the bird enjoys flying around and playing, that's great. It just isn't quality time to sit on the same tree every day for hours at a time with no chance to change that up. If the bird can fly and chooses to sit, then it's quality time because the bird chose to do that! So when we talk about a parrot necessitating out of cage time, what we really mean is that the parrot needs to have some kind of free time (as in liberty) in order to be content and healthy. The cage is obviously restrictive and not freedom so out of cage time, in order to serve the purpose of out of cage time, must come with freedom of movement and choice. Training of course is based largely on choice so it falls into this category. Being able to move around and make choices is the opposite of being idle and bored. Harness/outdoor time may be more restricted but it is also mentally engaging and healthy. It too is opposite to idle indoor cage time. Point is we gotta make out of cage time be as opposite to cage time as possible to make it count! Clearly many people put value on a parrot's out of cage time and realize it's important. It's just really important not to forget the reasons it is important and that the main purpose of out of cage time is to provide the things the parrot misses out on while remaining in the cage... activity, interaction, flight, exercise, outdoors!


Posted on January 23, 2014 10:02PM

Hello, I'm new to your forum and have read your article on" how much out of cage time". Rio is a lovebird, he's mixed peach and black face. He was not hand raised. I've had him for 2 plus years. He was really easy to train to step up, do tricks. He was anyway. I have let him have free reign of the house because he hated being in a cage. When his wings grow out, I let him fly for awhile, then get them clipped again when he starts setting the house alarm off. I bring him in to the pet store for them to clip his wings, and I found if I hide while they clip his wings, he won't be mad at me. But if he sees me or hears me talk while he's getting his wings clipped, He will stop interacting with me. So thats where he's at now. He runs away when I ask him to step up. He knows what step up means. He'll try to do all his other tricks for a treat, but I'm trying to get him to step up again. Rio has always hated me handling him, so we do tricks instead. However, he's gotten more wild and so I've tried holding him to see if he could get tamer. The more I've held him, the more wild he 's gotten. So I'm assuming I should not handle him at all but just do more tricks and interaction. Is that what you would assume? After reading your article, I have started locking him up in his cage, and re-introducing step up again in his cage. Lovebirds are so fast that even if he steps up in the cage. He runs away as soon as I take him out. Unlike a parrot, using a perch for a training spot won't work becasue he's like a fast little monkey, and heads back to where his cage area is and hides. I guess leaving a bird out to run free all of the time has resulted in a bratty bird. What would you suggest?


Posted on January 24, 2014 01:44PM

Tikki is out of her cage when ever we are home to supervise.


Posted on January 24, 2014 05:25PM

What would you suggest?[/quote:o3286ty6] I would suggest suggest letting him regain flight, securing your home for a flighted parrot (parrot proofing) and then starting over with basic taming from the very beginning, earning trust and getting the bird to do what you want because it wants to, rather than being forced to. I am sure that will get you a much happier and more tame bird in the long run!


Posted on May 27, 2017 02:48AM

My yellow-naped amazon is about 23. He is very social but well-behaved for the most part. When my roommate first brought him to our house 2 years ago, he spent a lot of time locked in his cage because his owner thought that he would have discipline problems if he were allowed too much free time. My roommate moved out, and I kept the parrot and now I just leave his cage door open and he goes in and out as he pleases. Sometimes he sleeps perched on top of his open door, sometimes he roosts inside of the cage. I believe he enjoys life much more now that he is not locked inside for several hours per day. His wings are not clipped, but he never flies. I don't think he knows how. There is a dwarf apple tree outside that he loves (>loves<) to sit in and sometimes he will stay outside for hours and won't move that much. I know he doesn't want to come in because I will hold my finger out for him and he takes it if he wants to leave, but will make his annoyed noise when he wants to stay. I just got him a pak-o-bird backpack, and he loves going places with me like to the library when I'm working on papers. I tricked it out a bendy-perch and some toys so he can perch half in and half out of the backpack when we're stationary for a bit. In my bird's case, he does not seem any more aggressive now that he is never locked up inside of his cage, but he certainly seems much less depressed and bored. I used a garden glove as a training tool whenever he would try to get aggressive during the first few months. It only took a few times of me putting the glove on when he would bite for him to figure it out, so now he knows the word "glove" and might protest by growling when annoyed if I make him do something he doesn't want to do, but doesn't bite me hard when he steps up. So much is taken away from birds when they are domesticated, I am trying to give him back as much freedom as I can. Thank you for this post. :irn:


Posted on May 27, 2017 06:59PM

Please don't take this the wrong way but I would not consider taking a bird without a harness outside because I think he can't or wont fly. They don't fly until they do and, when they do, they get lost.


Posted on May 28, 2017 09:33AM

He will fly one day and you will lose him, guaranteed.


Posted on May 28, 2017 10:42AM

[quote="stevesjk":v0l77geo]He will fly one day and you will lose him, guaranteed.[/quote:v0l77geo] I used to work at a farm store. One of the customers always came with a parrot on her shoulder. She had been doing it for many years. She said he won't fly away. But he caught a strong wind and did and she could not get him back.

Trick or 'Tiel

Posted on May 28, 2017 09:30PM

A parrot should only ever be taken outside in a harness or carrier, or if the parrot was professionally trained for freeflight. Everyone is telling you that you will lose your bird someday because they are correct. All you need to do is get a harness and train him to wear it and then you can take your bird outside with no worries.


Posted on May 29, 2017 03:13PM

Hmmm, I would not say that professionally trained birds are OK with free flight... too many of them have been lost to their 'professional' trainers.


Posted on June 17, 2020 08:28PM

Guys, this is legit, This article feels spot on in my opinion. I wish I had read it earlier. Long story short, I was tasked to rescue a hand-raised lovebird from a neglecting family. (You shoulda seen the mountain of crap inside the cage she was in 24/24h, 7/7d) It took 6 months, but I finally gained the trust of the little creature. Thankfully, she is now very friendly, if only reluctant to cuddling which is a stark contrast to her behavior from the start of our relationship. (Biting and being territorial) So, all the learning and I did during that time amounted to this : understanding hormones and acceptable activities, better understanding and respecting her limits, having her out of cage as often as possible and giving her lots of attention to reward pleasant behaviors. All in all, this is reflected in the text you wrote. I am certain any bird owner should follow these guidelines, especially if one has such a little pest as I did. Training this bird was an enriching hardship I would absolutely go through again if it's to see another bird find a piece of happiness and confort. Thank you, peace :thumbsup:


Posted on June 18, 2020 02:18PM

Welcome to the forum, Triplepi, and thank you so much for rescuing this little girl. But, my dear, lovebirds are INTENSELY pair-oriented and they need the company of a mate to be happy. If you have ever seen a bonded male/female pair of lovebirds you will understand that a human can never, ever provide the kind of attention they need. It's impossible. In Spanish, French, Italian and Portuguese, they are called 'inseparables' and they are! They spend their entire life together - never been more than a few inches away from each other... they even sleep leaning against each other. And they need this 24/7/365 love and attention to thrive. This doesn't mean that she will forget you or stop loving you - she won't. I had one that was given up because of aggression (she was just overly hormonal and very lonely) and she ended up getting two mates while she was with me (her first mate was an old, liver-damage male who died) and, even when she was sitting on eggs (plastic ones, of course), she would come out of her nest as soon as I walked into the room to fly to my shoulder, kiss me and spend time with me (her name was Matilda because she was an Australian cinnamon but my grandkids called her 'the Princess Bird' because they said she had 'privileges' that the other birds did not ). PLEASE, PLEASE, PLEASE consider getting her a mate.


Posted on July 14, 2020 01:56AM

I have a cockatiel, Loki, that I adopted from the humain society about a year ago. I love him to death, but I dont know how to spend time with him. He loves being in his cage. He sits on his favorite perch for hours before moving and sitting on his water dish for the next few hours. His cage is in my living room and I can't leave the door open for him to come to me, because of my parents' dog, which has tried to eat him before (my parents don't like when I put the dog away for any amount of time). I dont know what he went through when he was younger but he doesn't even let me give him treats, he cowers away from them, so I don't really know how to train him, or how to get him out of his cage. Any ideas?


Posted on July 14, 2020 02:29PM

Welcome to the forum and thank you so much for adopting instead of buying a baby! I am afraid that if your parents do not allow you to lock the dog for a few hours, you can't let him out of its cage. It would be too dangerous. Having said that, I have dogs (too many ) and they are all rescues so it's not as if I trained them from puppyhood not to react to 'prey' animals (I also have cats but they are locked when the birds are out) and they have all learned. The last one is a 15 year old pocket pitbull female that I took in fairly recently and she used to go after both the cats and the birds when she first came (pitbulls have a high prey drive) but she learned not to. She still wants to (you can see it in her body language) but she stops herself from doing it when given a loud SHHHHHH! followed by a "NO! Leave it alone!" as soon as she sits up and tenses and I am sure that in a few more months she will even stop this so you might be able to teach the dog not to react. My golden retriever, whom I've had for many years, learned to freeze when a bird perches on him - and he belongs to a bird hunting breed so it's not impossible. Of course, they are always closely supervised by me when the birds are out (I keep them all in the kitchen by closing the baby gate I have at the entrance and I sit in the kitchen with them). As to training him... well, I'll be honest with you, I am always of two minds when it comes to training aviary birds (which is what cockatiels are - they are not companion parrots). On the one hand, I do completely understand the human's desire for the closer relationship and ease of handling that implies having a bird step up to a finger (I love birds and I also crave that) and I do firmly believe that taming them so they are not afraid of us is essential for their wellbeing (because of the chronic stress that living with a giant predator alien must mean to them) but, actually, this can be accomplished without any training whatsoever. It just takes patience - lots and lots of patience. I have a few birds that I cannot handle AT ALL but they no longer fear me - quite the contrary, they trust me. Not with the same deep trust that human-imprinted birds have for their chosen humans but they no longer try to bite me or get away from me and they even obey a few commands so they are able to come out of their cages to fly for hours because they will go back into their cages on their own when I tell them to "Go home". I have a parent-raised GCC that learned to go back to her cage when told to and a pair of quakers that I got recently that do not like hands and would not even step up to a stick but I have taught them to step up to my hand (kept flat) covered with 'their' kitchen towel (they have been clipped all their lives and could not fly at all when they first came -they are better now- so, in order for me to put them back on their cage, I had to teach them to step up to something. So, taming and teaching them to trust a human is entirely possible even with parent-raised birds (which is what your tiel is). But, in order for you to be able to do this, you need to be able to let him out of its cage (for some birds, you have to wait weeks and weeks of opening the cage and just wait for them to feel comfortable enough to come out on their own) and, if you cannot do that, there is very little you can do in terms of teaching the bird to step up or anything. But you can easily teach him to take treats from your hand. All it takes is the right diet and that means no free-feeding protein food because, if you do, for one thing you will end up destroying its liver and kidneys, and, for another, you will never be able to train it. So re-evaluate its diet and find what his high value item is and it will be super easy to get him to take a treat from your hand. Having said all that, I would like to go a little further on my advice. It deviates from your question but my goal has always been to benefit birds by improving their lives and, for a cockatiel, that means having another bird. Cockatiels are not companion parrots, they are aviary, and even when they are hand-raised and imprinted to a kind human, they are never truly happy without having, at the very least, a mate (best thing for them is a small flock but that is impractical in captivity). It has nothing to do with what the human does or doesn't do - it's the way they evolved and you cannot change evolution. A cockatiel can learn to trust and even love its human, to step up, to perch on its human's shoulder, to enjoy head scratches, etc but what the bird feels for its human will NEVER compare to the enrichment of having a companion of their own species means. So, I would ask you to think a bit about this and see if you can find it in your heart to get him a mate. He is VERY lonely and stressed out as he is now... he has nobody and they need 24/7/365 company. In truth, for a cockatiel to be happy all it needs is a mate, a large flight cage, a good diet and a solar schedule.

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